There is a great article by High-Tech Bridge Security Research team about the Open Source WAF ModSecurity. I thought it'd be interesting to cover a few of the topics they mentioned at a high level.
Have you ever had a scenario where a security vulnerability was identified (perhaps by a scanner, or an outside resources, etc.) but you were unable to immediately patch it. Perhaps you were in the middle of a large project and had no resources. Perhaps the vulnerability was in a fragile high risk area of the sites and numerous hours or days of testing are required. Perhaps the site is hosted/built by a 3rd party and you have to deal with formalities and other delays. A possible solution to any of these problems would be to apply a temporary "virtual patch" with your WAF in order to block the attack from occurring until you get the developers to build & test the real patch. Remember you still want to perform real patching, your virtual patching should only be temporary because WAFs are just another layer, and that layer could also have vulnerabilities or weaknesses of their own (such as WAF bypasses). Thus the only real way to prevent exploit is to perform a full patch.
But for the temporary fix, you might be wondering ... what does a virtual patch look like? Well essentially you can write a rule (think of it as similar to a SNORT IDS/IPS rule) that restricts what data can be utilized on the website to hopefully allow the good data and block that attackers data.
Exploit Url: http://www.mysite.com/product.aspx?productid=alert(document.cookie)
SecRule REQUEST_FILENAME "/product.aspx" "phase:2, t:none, t:normalisePath, t:lowercase, t:urlDecodeUni, chain, deny, log, id:1001"
SecRule ARGS_GET:productid "!^[0-9]+$" "t:none"
To explain further, let's say in the example above that you confirm the productid parameter on the product.aspx page is vulnerable to XSS but you cannot apply permanent patch yet. Thus you want to create a temporary WAF virtual patch to block attackers from exploiting it. The 'SecRule' keyword allows you to analyze and act upon variables. You'll notice there are 2 lines thus we are analyzing 2 variables. The 1st is the 'REQUEST_FILENAME' variable and it holds the name of the file being requested. In this case we validate that it's the product.aspx page. Then we can set a bunch of actions. The first one I want to point out is the word 'chain'. This indicates that there are multiple 'SecRule's that are getting chained together (in this case our 2 lines/2 variables we're comparing). Also it says 'deny' and 'log' which means if these chained rules match we are denying and logging it. Just like a snort rule there is an "id" also for tracking. There are also a bunch that start with the letter 't' which stand for transformation functions. 'none' starts you with a clean slate, then it's saying do all the comparisons in 'lowercase', and use the 'normalisePath' to eliminate any double slashes, and use unicode with 'urlDecodeUni'. The other action in the first line is 'phase:2' which indicates for the WAF to look at the Request. Phase 1 is the request headers, Phase 2 is the request, Phase 3 is the Response headers, phase 4 is the Response, and Phase 5 is logging. The phase is for performance.
The second line is another 'SecRule' on a variable called 'ARGS_GET'. More specifically, it's comparing the value of the 'productid' query string argument. This line creates a whitelist to basically attempt to allow the good data and block the attackers bad data. In this case it's providing a regular express that says the productid can only contain numbers (1 to many). Thus by allowing only numbers, the WAF will 'deny' the request and 'log' if anybody tries to pass anything other than numbers into the productid parameter. Just like that you've prevented the XSS.
Exploit Url: http://www.mysite.com/search.aspx?keyword=value';insert+into+user+('admin','password');--
SecRule REQUEST_FILENAME "/search.aspx" "phase:2, t:none, t:normalisePath, t:lowercase, t:urlDecodeUni, chain, deny, log, id:1002"
SecRule ARGS:keyword "'" "t:none, t:urlDecodeUni"
Just to provide a second example, above is a url that you've identified as having a keyword parameter vulnerable to SQL injection. In the case above, the attacker terminates the keyword value in SQL with the apostrophe, then inserts an admin user into the user table, then comments out the rest of the SQL. To prevent this we chain 2 'SecRule's again. We first check that we're on the vulnerable 'search.aspx' page and we're going to 'deny' and 'log' again.
The second line then look for the 'keyword' query string parameter, and if it contains an apostrophe or any unicode variation, then it will 'deny' the requst, thus you've temporarily prevented the SQL injection.
The article has many more great examples of how to block things like CSRF, Path Traversal, etc.
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